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Citation Help: Other Source Types

A quick note:

The following examples follow the Notes-Bibliography style. For Author-Date style, please consult The Chicago Manual of Style 17th Edition.

Chicago AND Turabian Citation Examples: Other Source Types

Chicago and Turabian use the same format for the following source types.

Personal Communications

Personal communications, including email and text messages and direct messages sent through social media, are usually cited in the text or in a note only; they are rarely included in a bibliography.


1. Sam Gomez, Facebook message to author, August 1, 2017.

Unpublished Interview

Unpublished interviews are best cited in text or in notes, though they occasionally appear in bibliographies. Citations should include the names of both the person interviewed and the interviewer; brief identifying information, if appropriate; the place or date of the interview (or both, if known); and, if a transcript or recording is available, where it may be found. Permission to quote may be needed.


1. Andrew Macmillan (principal adviser, Investment Center Division, FAO), in discussion with the author, September 1998.

2. Benjamin Spock, interview by Milton J. E. Senn, November 20, 1974, interview 67A, transcript, Senn Oral History Collection, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

3. Macmillan, discussion; Spock, interview.

Unattributed or Anonymous Interview

An interview with a person who prefers to remain anonymous or whose name the author does not wish to reveal may be cited in whatever form is appropriate in context. The absence of a name should be explained (e.g., “All interviews were conducted in confidentiality, and the names of interviewees are withheld by mutual agreement”).


1. Interview with health-care worker, July 31, 2017.

Published or Broadcast Interview

An interview that has been published or broadcast or made available online can usually be treated like an article or other item in a periodical. Interviews consulted online should include a URL or similar identifier.


1. Lydia Davis, “The Art of Fiction No. 227,” interview by Andrea Aguilar and Johanne Fronth-Nygren, Paris Review, no. 212 (Spring 2015): 172, EBSCOhost.

2. McGeorge Bundy, interview by Robert MacNeil, MacNeil/Lehrer NewsHour, PBS, February 7, 1990.

3. Russell Crowe, interview by Charlie Rose, Charlie Rose, April 23, 2015,

  • Bibliography entries (in alphabetical order)
  • Bellour, Raymond. “Alternation, Segmentation, Hypnosis: Interview with Raymond Bellour.” By Janet Bergstrom. Camera Obscura, nos. 3–4 (Summer 1979): 89–94.

Lectures and papers, slides, or posters presented at meetings

Important Elements:

  • Title of Paper or Poster 
  • Sponsorship
  • Location of Meeting
  • Date
  • If the information is available on line, include a stable URL

A paper included in the published proceedings of a meeting may be treated like a chapter in a book. If published in a journal, it is treated as an article.


1. Author/Presenter First Last, "Title of Presentation" (Type of Presentation, Location, Date).

1. David G. Harper, “The Several Discoveries of the Ciliary Muscle” (PowerPoint presentation, 25th Anniversary of the Cogan Ophthalmic History Society, Bethesda, MD, March 31, 2012).

2. Viviana Hong, “Censorship in Children’s Literature during Argentina’s Dirty War (1976–1983)” (lecture, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, April 30, 2015).

Shortened Note

3. Author/Presentor Last, "Shortened Title."

3. Hong, "Censorship."

Bibliography entries (in alphabetical order)

Author/Presenter Last, First. "Title of Presentation." Presented at Location, Date.

Rohde, Hannah, Roger Levy, and Andrew Kehler. “Implicit Causality Biases Influence Relative Clause Attachment.” Poster presented at the 21st CUNY Conference on Human Sentence Processing, Chapel Hill, NC, March 2008.

Teplin, Linda A., Gary M. McClelland, Karen M. Abram, and Jason J. Washburn. “Early Violent Death in Delinquent Youth: A Prospective Longitudinal Study.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychology-Law Society, La Jolla, CA, March 2005.

All examples courtesy of The Chicago Manual of Style 17th Edition.

Chicago/Turabian Citation Examples by Source

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