Chicago and Turabian use the same format for the following source types.
Personal communications, including email and text messages and direct messages sent through social media, are usually cited in the text or in a note only; they are rarely included in a bibliography.
1. Sam Gomez, Facebook message to author, August 1, 2017.
Unpublished interviews are best cited in text or in notes, though they occasionally appear in bibliographies. Citations should include the names of both the person interviewed and the interviewer; brief identifying information, if appropriate; the place or date of the interview (or both, if known); and, if a transcript or recording is available, where it may be found. Permission to quote may be needed.
1. Andrew Macmillan (principal adviser, Investment Center Division, FAO), in discussion with the author, September 1998.
2. Benjamin Spock, interview by Milton J. E. Senn, November 20, 1974, interview 67A, transcript, Senn Oral History Collection, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.
3. Macmillan, discussion; Spock, interview.
Unattributed or Anonymous Interview
An interview with a person who prefers to remain anonymous or whose name the author does not wish to reveal may be cited in whatever form is appropriate in context. The absence of a name should be explained (e.g., “All interviews were conducted in confidentiality, and the names of interviewees are withheld by mutual agreement”).
1. Interview with health-care worker, July 31, 2017.
Published or Broadcast Interview
An interview that has been published or broadcast or made available online can usually be treated like an article or other item in a periodical. Interviews consulted online should include a URL or similar identifier.
1. Lydia Davis, “The Art of Fiction No. 227,” interview by Andrea Aguilar and Johanne Fronth-Nygren, Paris Review, no. 212 (Spring 2015): 172, EBSCOhost.
2. McGeorge Bundy, interview by Robert MacNeil, MacNeil/Lehrer NewsHour, PBS, February 7, 1990.
3. Russell Crowe, interview by Charlie Rose, Charlie Rose, April 23, 2015, http://www.charlierose.com/watch/60551640.
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