Skip to main content
The University of Iowa Libraries

The University of Iowa Libraries

Guides

Citation Help: Websites, Including Social Media

A quick note:

The following examples follow the Notes-Bibliography style. For Author-Date style, please consult The Chicago Manual of Style 17th Edition.

Chicago AND Turabian Citation Examples: Websites, Including Social Media

Chicago and Turabian use the same format for the following examples.


Website content

It is often sufficient simply to describe web pages and other website content in the text (“As of May 1, 2017, Yale’s home page listed . . .”). If a more formal citation is needed, it may be styled like the examples below. 

Important Elements:

  • Author (if known)
  • Title of Web Page
  • Title of Website
  • Website Publisher
  • Date of Publication or Revision
    • For a source that does not list a date of publication or revision, include an access date.
  • Stable URL

Notes

1. Author, "Title of Web Page," Title of Website, Website Publisher, Date, Stable URL.

1. “Privacy Policy,” Privacy & Terms, Google, last modified April 17, 2017, https://www-google-com.proxy.lib.uiowa.edu/policies/privacy/.

Shortened note

2. Website, "Shortened Title."

2. Google, “Privacy Policy.”

Bibliography entries (in alphabetical order)

Author/Website Publisher. "Title of Web Page." Title of Website. Date. Stable URL.

Google. “Privacy Policy.” Privacy & Terms. Last modified April 17, 2017. https://www-google-com.proxy.lib.uiowa.edu/policies/privacy/.


Social media content

Citations of content shared through social media can usually be limited to the text (as in the first example below). A note may be added if a more formal citation is needed.

In rare cases, a bibliography entry may also be appropriate.

In place of a title, quote up to the first 160 characters of the post.

As shown in the shortened note example, comments are cited in reference to the original post.

In-Text

Conan O’Brien’s tweet was characteristically deadpan: “In honor of Earth Day, I’m recycling my tweets” (@ConanOBrien, April 22, 2015).

Notes

1. Author/Creator (username if applicable), "Up to first 160 characters of post," Social Media Platform, Publication Date, Stable URL.

1. Chicago Manual of Style, “Is the world ready for singular they? We thought so back in 1993,” Facebook, April 17, 2015, https://www.facebook.com/ChicagoManual/posts/10152906193679151.

Shortened notes

2. Author/Creator Name, Date, reference to post, "shortened quote."

2. Michele Truty, April 17, 2015, 1:09 p.m., comment on Chicago Manual of Style, “singular they.”

Bibliography Entry

Poster/Ceator. "Up to first 160 characters of post." Social Media Platform, Date. Stable URL.

Chicago Manual of Style. “Is the world ready for singular they? We thought so back in 1993.” Facebook, April 17, 2015. https://www.facebook.com/ChicagoManual/posts/10152906193679151. 

Ask a Librarian

Librarians are available to help you with your questions. Please don't hesitate to contact us with any questions you might have regarding citation styles, citation management, etc.

Ask a question below or contact your subject specialist librarian for more help!

Useful Resources for Chicago/Turabian