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Citation Help: Audio / Video

APA Citation Examples: Audio/Visual

Note: Citations with more than one line of text should have a hanging indent of 1/2 inch or 5 spaces.


Important Elements

  • Director/Producer/Writer
  • Date of release
  • Title (in italics)
  • Country where motion picture was made
  • Studio

Motion Picture

Director Last, First Initial. (Director). Movie Title. [Motion Picture]. Location, Studio.

Johnston, J. (Director). (2004). Hidalgo. [Motion Picture]. United States, Touchstone/Disney.

Online Video

Producer Last, First Initial. and Producer Last, First Initial, (Producers) (Year). Title of Video [Online video]. Retrieved Month day, Year, from Production Company.

Jhally, S. and J. Earp, (Producers) (2012).  Race, power, and American sports, featuring Dave Zirin, [Online video]. Retrieved November 27, 2013, from Media Education Foundation/Kanopy.

Television Show

Important elements:

  • Writer & Director
  • Date of release
  • Episode title
  • [Television Episode Type]
  • Executive Producer
  • Title of Television Program (in italics)
  • Country where program was made
  • Network

Writer, A. A., & Director, A. A. (year). Title of episode. [Television series episode]. In A. Executive Producer (Executive Producer),Title of television program. Location: Network.

Bernstein, L. (narrator and conductor), Englander, R. (director), & Dubin, C. S. (director). (1963-1964). Jazz in the concert hall. [Television special episode]. In R. Englander (producer), Young People's Concerts with the New York Philharmonic. New York: CBS Television Network.

Music recording:

Important Elements

  • Performer
  • Date of release
  • Title of track
  • Title of recording (in italics)
  • [Recording format] 
  • Country where recording was made:
  • Label
Performer, A. A. (year). Title of track. On Title of recording [recording format]. Location: Label.

Medeski, Martin, and Wood. (2008). Pirates don't take baths. On Let's Go Everywhere [CD]. New York: Little Monster Records.


Some examples courtesy of Penn State University Libraries

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