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Citation Help: Interviews & Other Source Types

APA Citation Examples: Other Sources

 

Unpublished Interviews and Other Personal Communication

In APA style, interviews and other forms of unpublished personal communication, such as e-mail, letters, memos or class notes, are not included in the reference list. Cite interviews and personal communication in parentheses within the text of your paper:

Professor Smith contends that the use of educational technology in the classroom increases student engagement (J. Smith, personal communication, September 4, 2015).


Interviews in Archives and Collections

The basic format for an interview from an archive or collection is as follows:

Author. (Year, Month Day). Title of material. [Description of material]. Name of Collection (Call number, Box number, File name or number, etc.). Name of Repository, Location.

Example: Recorded Interview in an Archive

Smith, M. B. (1989, August 12). Interview by C. A. Kiesler [Tape recording]. President’s Oral History Project. American Psychological Association. APA Archives, Washington, DC.

Example: Interview Transcription (no recording available)

Sparkman, C. F. (1973). An oral history with Dr. Colley F. Sparkman/Interviewer: Orley B. Caudill. Mississippi Oral History Program (Vol. 289), University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg.


Interviews Online (Audio Clip)

Basic Format:

Author. (Year, Month Day). Title of Interview (Interviewer) [Description of form]. Retrieved from URL

Example:

Edleman, M. W. (2004, October 21). Marian Wright Edelman: Bush leaving kids behind (T. Smiley, Interviewer) [Audio file]. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4120281


Television Interview

Basic Format:

Author. (Year, Month Day of Interview). Title of Interview. Interview by Interviewer’s Initials and Last Name. In Producer’s Last Name, Initials. Title of broadcast or series> [Television broadcast]. City of origin: Studio or Distributor.

Example:

Williams, R. (2007, June 3). Interview by L. King. Larry King Live [Television broadcast]. Los Angeles: Cable News Network.


Indirect Sources

If you refer to a source that is cited in another source, list only the source you consulted directly (the secondary source) in your reference list. Name the original source in the text of your paper, and cite the secondary source in parentheses: “Wallace argues that…. (as cited in Smith, 2009).” In this example, only the Smith source would be included in the reference list.

Whenever possible, try to find and consult the original source. If the University of Iowa Libraries does not have the original source, we can try to get it for you through interlibrary loan.

Courtesy of Penn State University Libraries

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Useful Resources for APA Citation