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The University of Iowa Libraries

The University of Iowa Libraries

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Citation Help: Other Source Types

APA Citation Examples: Other Sources

Interviews and Other Unpublished Personal Communication

In APA style, interviews and other forms of unpublished personal communication, such as e-mail, letters, memos or class notes, are not included in the reference list. Cite interviews and personal communication in parentheses within the text of your paper:

Professor Smith contends that the use of educational technology in the classroom increases student engagement (J. Smith, personal communication, September 4, 2015).

Indirect Sources

If you refer to a source that is cited in another source, list only the source you consulted directly (the secondary source) in your reference list. Name the original source in the text of your paper, and cite the secondary source in parentheses: “Wallace argues that…. (as cited in Smith, 2009).” In this example, only the Smith source would be included in the reference list.

Whenever possible, try to find and consult the original source. If the University of Iowa Libraries does not have the original source, we can try to get it for you through interlibrary loan.

Courtesy of Penn State University Libraries

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Librarians are available to help you with your questions. Please don't hesitate to contact us with any questions you might have regarding citation styles, citation management, etc.

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Useful Resources for APA Citation