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Citation Help: Other Source Types

A quick note:

The following examples follow the Notes-Bibliography style. For Author-Date style, please consult The Chicago Manual of Style 17th Edition.

Chicago AND Turabian Citation Examples: Other Source Types

Chicago and Turabian use the same format for the following source types.

Personal communication

Personal communications, including email and text messages and direct messages sent through social media, are usually cited in the text or in a note only; they are rarely included in a bibliography.


1. Sam Gomez, Facebook message to author, August 1, 2017.

Lectures and papers, slides, or posters presented at meetings

Important Elements:

  • Title of Paper or Poster 
  • Sponsorship
  • Location of Meeting
  • Date
  • If the information is available on line, include a stable URL

A paper included in the published proceedings of a meeting may be treated like a chapter in a book. If published in a journal, it is treated as an article.


1. Author/Presenter First Last, "Title of Presentation" (Type of Presentation, Location, Date).

1. David G. Harper, “The Several Discoveries of the Ciliary Muscle” (PowerPoint presentation, 25th Anniversary of the Cogan Ophthalmic History Society, Bethesda, MD, March 31, 2012).

2. Viviana Hong, “Censorship in Children’s Literature during Argentina’s Dirty War (1976–1983)” (lecture, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, April 30, 2015).

Shortened Note

3. Author/Presentor Last, "Shortened Title."

3. Hong, "Censorship."

Bibliography entries (in alphabetical order)

Author/Presenter Last, First. "Title of Presentation." Presented at Location, Date.

Rohde, Hannah, Roger Levy, and Andrew Kehler. “Implicit Causality Biases Influence Relative Clause Attachment.” Poster presented at the 21st CUNY Conference on Human Sentence Processing, Chapel Hill, NC, March 2008.

Teplin, Linda A., Gary M. McClelland, Karen M. Abram, and Jason J. Washburn. “Early Violent Death in Delinquent Youth: A Prospective Longitudinal Study.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychology-Law Society, La Jolla, CA, March 2005.

All examples courtesy of The Chicago Manual of Style 17th Edition.

Chicago/Turabian Citation Examples by Source

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