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Citation Help: Audio / Video

A quick note:

The following examples follow the Notes-Bibliography style. For Author-Date style, please consult The Chicago Manual of Style 17th Edition.

Chicago Citation Examples: Audio/Visual

Musical Recordings

Important Elements:

  • Author, Composer, Performer or Conductor 
  • Title of Disk
  • Pertinent information: i.e. Performers, conductors, orchestras, recording location and date, 
  • Record Label and Catalog Number
  • Publication/Release Date
  • Medium
  • For streaming audio formats and downloads, list the service or the file format, as applicable.

A citation may begin with a title in a note; in a bibliography entry, list by author, performer, or other primary contributor.

If the conductor or performer is the focus of the recording or is more relevant to the discussion than the composer, either one may be listed first.

For the date, include the date of the recording, the copyright date, or published date included with the recording, or both. If a date or other information cannot be determined from the recording (a common problem with older recordings and with music files downloaded out of context), consult a library catalog or other resource; citations without such information are generally unacceptable. If no date can be found, use “n.d.” (for no date).

Recordings on LP or disc typically include acquisition numbers, which follow the name of the publisher with no intervening comma. 

Notes

1. Composer, Performer or Conductor, Title of Disc, pertinent information, including performers, conductors, orchestras, recording location and date, Record Label and Catalog number, Publication date. Medium.

 

1. The Fireside Treasury of Folk Songs, vol. 1, orchestra and chorus dir. Mitch Miller, Golden Record A198:17A–B, 1958, 33⅓ rpm.

2. New York Trumpet Ensemble, with Edward Carroll (trumpet) and Edward Brewer (organ), Art of the Trumpet, recorded at the Madeira Festival, June 1–2, 1981, Vox/Turnabout PVT 7183, 1982, compact disc.

3. Richard Strauss, Don Quixote, with Emanuel Feuermann (violoncello) and the Philadelphia Orchestra, conducted by Eugene Ormandy, recorded February 24, 1940, Biddulph LAB 042, 1991, compact disc.

4. Billie Holiday, vocalist, “I’m a Fool to Want You,” by Joel Herron, Frank Sinatra, and Jack Wolf, recorded February 20, 1958, with Ray Ellis, track 1 on Lady in Satin, Columbia CL 1157, 33⅓ rpm.

5. “Umbrella,” featuring Jay-Z, MP3 audio, track 1 on Rihanna, Good Girl Gone Bad, Island Def Jam, 2007.

OR

6. “Umbrella,” featuring Jay-Z, Spotify, track 1 on Rihanna, Good Girl Gone Bad, Island Def Jam, 2007.

 

Discography Entries (in alphabetical order)

Musical recordings are usually listed in a separate discography rather than in a bibliography. If included in a bibliography, they are best grouped under an appropriate subhead.
 

Author Last Name, Author First Name. Title of disc. Pertinent information, including performers, conductors, orchestras, recording location and date, etc. Label and Catalog Number, Year, Medium.

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Don Giovanni. Orchestra and Chorus of the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden. Sir Colin Davis. With Ingvar Wixell, Luigi Roni, Martina Arroyo, Stuart Burrows, Kiri Te Kanawa, et al. Recorded May 1973. Philips 422 541-2, 1991, 3 compact discs.

Pink Floyd. Atom Heart Mother. Capitol CDP 7 46381 2, 1990, compact disc. Originally released in 1970.

Rubinstein, Artur, pianist. The Chopin Collection. Recorded 1946, 1958–67. RCA Victor / BMG 60822-2-RG, 1991, 11 compact discs.

Weingartner, Felix von, conductor. 150 Jahre Wiener Philharmoniker. Recorded in 1936. Preiser Records PR90113 (mono), 1992, compact disc. Includes Beethoven’s Symphony no. 3 in E-flat Major and Symphony no. 8 in F Major.


Recordings of drama, prose or poetry readings, lectures, and the like are treated much the same as musical recodings. Facts of publication, where needed, follow the style for print media.

For more information see Chapter 14 of The Chicago Manual of Style 17th Edition.


Video and film recordings

Important Elements:

  • Title (TV Show, Film Title, Chapter Title, etc.) 
  • Pertinent information: i.e. episode no., series no., disc no., etc.
  • Director Name, Author Name, Featured People, Performer Name
  • Air date (if applicable)
  • Studio/Network
  • Publication/Release Date
  • Medium
  • Length of video/film
  • For streaming formats and downloads, list the service or the file format, and a stable URL as applicable.

Citations will vary according to the nature of the material (television show, movie, etc.).

Any facts relevant to identifying the item should be included.

Indexed scenes are treated as chapters and cited by title or by number.

Ancillary material, such as critical commentary, is cited by author and title. Note that in the Monty Python example, the citation is of material original to the 2001 edition, so the original release date of the film (1975) is omitted.

For sources found online:

Include a URL as the final element of the citation. If no date can be determined from the source, include the date the material was last accessed. If the material is a recording of a speech or other performance, or if it is a digital version of a published source, include information about the original performance or source.

Whether to list information about the original or the digitized copy first will depend on the information available and is usually up to the author.

For multimedia designed to run in a web browser, a file format does not need to be mentioned; if a downloadable file was consulted (as in example notes 1 and 3), specify format. 

Copies of sources that are under copyright and which have been posted without ties to any publisher or sponsor should be cited with caution. 

Notes

1. Title of TV Show, episode no. x, "Episode title," directed by Director First Name Last Name, written by Author Name(s), air date Month day, year, on Network, Stable URL (if applicable).

2. "Chapter Title," Film Title, directed by Director First Name Last Name (Orignial Film Release Year; Location: Studio/Distributor, Release Year of Medium Used), Medium.

 

1. American Crime Story: The People v. O. J. Simpson, episode 6, “Marcia, Marcia, Marcia,” directed by Ryan Murphy, written by D. V. DeVincentis, featuring Sterling K. Brown, Kenneth Choi, and Sarah Paulson, aired March 8, 2016, on FX, https://www.amazon.com/dp/B01ARVPCOA/.

2. “Crop Duster Attack,” North by Northwest, directed by Alfred Hitchcock (1959; Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2000), DVD.
 

Bibliography Entries (in alphabetical order)

Performer Name Last, First. "Chapter Title." Title of Film. Medium. Directed by Director Name First Last. Location: Studio, Year.

Director Name Last, First, dir. Title of Film. Year; Location of Studio: Studio, release Year. Medium.

Director Name Last, First, dir. Title of TV Show. Season x, episode x, "Title of Episode." Aired Month day, year, on Network. Stable URL (if applicable). 
 

Cleese, John, Terry Gilliam, Eric Idle, Terry Jones, and Michael Palin. “Commentaries.” Disc 2. Monty Python and the Holy Grail, special ed. DVD. Directed by Terry Gilliam and Terry Jones. Culver City, CA: Columbia Tristar Home Entertainment, 2001.

Cuarón, Alfonso, dir. Gravity. 2013; Burbank, CA: Warner Bros. Pictures, 2014. Blu-ray Disc, 1080p HD.

Handel, George Frideric. Messiah. Atlanta Symphony Orchestra and Chamber Chorus, Robert Shaw. Performed December 19, 1987. Ansonia Station, NY: Video Artists International, 1988. Videocassette (VHS), 141 min.

Mayberry, Russ, dir. The Brady Bunch. Season 3, episode 10, “Her Sister’s Shadow.” Aired November 19, 1971, on ABC. https://www.hulu.com/the-brady-bunch.

For more information see Chapter 14 of The Chicago Manual of Style 17th Edition


Examples from The Chicago Manual of Style 17th Edition

Turabian Citation Examples: Audio/Visual

Compact Disk

Notes

1. Author First Name Author Last Name, Title of disc, pertinent information, including performers, conductors, orchestras,recording location and date, etc, Label and label number, Publication date. CD.

 

1. Georges Bizet,Carmen: highlights, with Jessye Norman (soprano), Mirella Freni (soprano), Neil Shicoff (tenor), Simon Estes (bass-baritone), conducted by Seiji Ozawa, recorded with Orchestre national de France, July 13-22, 1988, Grand Auditorium de Radio France, Philips 422 366-2, 1989, CD.

Bibliography Entry

Author Last Name, Author First Name. Title of disc. Pertinent information, including performers, conductors, orchestras, recording location and date, etc. Label and label number, Publication.

Bizet, Georges. Carmen: highlights. With Jessye Norman (soprano), Mirella Freni (soprano), Neil Shicoff (tenor), Simon Estes (bass-baritone). Conducted by Seiji Ozawa. Recorded with Orchestre national de France, July 13-22, 1988, Grand Auditorium de Radio France. Philips 422 366-2, 1989. CD.


Sound Recording: LP Record

Notes

1. Author First Name Author Last Name, Title of disc, pertinent information, including performers, conductors, orchestras, recording location and date, etc, Label and label number, Publication date. #rpm.

1. Hawkeye Marching Band, Gametime, directed by Tom Davis, Fidelity Sound Recordings FSRS-1277, 1970, 33 1/3 rpm.

Bibliography Entry

Author Last Name, Author First Name. Title of disc. Pertinent information, including performers, conductors, orchestras, recording location and date, etc. Label and label number, Publication date. #rpm.

Hawkeye Marching Band. Gametime. Directed by Tom Davis. Fidelity Sound Recordings FSRS-
     1277,1970. 33 1/3 rpm.


Sound Recording: Digital Audio File

Notes

1. Author First Name Author Last Name, Title of disc,pertinent information, including performers, conductors, orchestras, recording location and date, etc, Label and label number, Stable URL.

 

1. Hawkeye Marching Band,Gametime, directed by Tom Davis, Fidelity Sound Recordings FSRS-1277, http://digital.lib.uiowa.edu/cdm/ref/collection/ias/id/1028.

 

Bibliography Entry

Author Last Name, Author First Name. Title of disc. Pertinent information, including performers, conductors, orchestras, recording location and date, etc. Label and label number, Stable URL.

Hawkeye Marching Band.Gametime. Directed by Tom Davis. Fidelity Sound Recordings FSRS 1277, http://digital.lib.uiowa.edu/cdm/ref/collection/ias/id/1028.


Film/Movie

Notes

1. Title of movie, directed by Director First Name Director Last Name (Studio Name, Year Released), Medium (Publisher, Publication year).

 

1. West Side Story, directed by Robert Wise and Jerome Robbins (Mirisch Pictures, Inc., 1961), DVD (MGM Home Entertainment, 2003).

Bibliography Entry

Title of movie. Directed by Director First Name Director Last Name. Studio Name, Year Released. Medium. Publisher, Publication year.

West Side Story. Directed by Robert Wise and Jerome Robbins. Pictures, Inc., 1961. DVD. MGM Home Entertainment, 2003.


Television Program

Notes

1.Title of program, Season, episode, "Title of episode," directed by Director First Name Director Last Name, aired date, on Network, Medium (Production Company, Year), item information.

 

1. Slings and Arrows, season 2, episode 6, "Birnam Wood," directed by Peter Wellington, aired August 1, 2005, on Movie Central/The Movie Network, DVD (Acorn Media, 2008), disc 4.

Bibliography entry

Title of program. Season, episode, "Title of episode." Directed by Director First Name Director Last Name. Aired date, on Network. Medium. Production Company, Year, item information.

Slings and Arrows. Season 2, episode 6, "Birnam Wood." Directed by Peter Wellington. Aired August 1, 2005, on Movie Central/The Movie Network. DVD. Acorn Media, 2008, disc 4.

Examples From: Music Citation Guide

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