A citation may begin with a title in a note; in a bibliography entry, list by author, performer, or other primary contributor.
If the conductor or performer is the focus of the recording or is more relevant to the discussion than the composer, either one may be listed first.
For the date, include the date of the recording, the copyright date, or published date included with the recording, or both. If a date or other information cannot be determined from the recording (a common problem with older recordings and with music files downloaded out of context), consult a library catalog or other resource; citations without such information are generally unacceptable. If no date can be found, use “n.d.” (for no date).
Recordings on LP or disc typically include acquisition numbers, which follow the name of the publisher with no intervening comma.
Musical recordings are usually listed in a separate discography rather than in a bibliography. If included in a bibliography, they are best grouped under an appropriate subhead.
Recordings of drama, prose or poetry readings, lectures, and the like are treated much the same as musical recodings. Facts of publication, where needed, follow the style for print media.
For more information see Chapter 14 of The Chicago Manual of Style 17th Edition.
Citations will vary according to the nature of the material (television show, movie, etc.).
Any facts relevant to identifying the item should be included.
Indexed scenes are treated as chapters and cited by title or by number.
Ancillary material, such as critical commentary, is cited by author and title. Note that in the Monty Python example, the citation is of material original to the 2001 edition, so the original release date of the film (1975) is omitted.
For sources found online:
Include a URL as the final element of the citation. If no date can be determined from the source, include the date the material was last accessed. If the material is a recording of a speech or other performance, or if it is a digital version of a published source, include information about the original performance or source.
Whether to list information about the original or the digitized copy first will depend on the information available and is usually up to the author.
For multimedia designed to run in a web browser, a file format does not need to be mentioned; if a downloadable file was consulted (as in example notes 1 and 3), specify format.
Copies of sources that are under copyright and which have been posted without ties to any publisher or sponsor should be cited with caution.
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