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MD and PA Students: AMA & Vancouver Citation Styles

Resources to assist with assignments in Clinical and Professional Skills and Medicine and Society.

AMA Style

The AMA Manual of Style provides editorial support to the medical and scientific publishing community. Extensively peer-reviewed, the 10th edition provides an improved standard for the growing international medical community. More than a style manual, it offers invaluable guidance on how to navigate the dilemmas that authors and researchers and their institutions, medical editors and publishers, and members of the news media who cover scientific research confront.

Vancouver Style

Vancouver style is used widely to cite biomedical information. It was originally set forth in 1978 by a group of editors from major biomedical journals who met in Vancouver, British Columbia—which is why it is called Vancouver Style. The style is recommended by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors in the publication Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals.

The rules for using the style can be found in the following free ebook available from the PubMed bookshelf: 

Vancouver Style Examples

Electronic Material

Electronic Journal Article with Page Numbers

Polgreen PM, Diekema DJ, Vandeberg J, Wiblin RT, Chen YY, David S, Rasmus D, Gerdts N, Ross A, Katz L, Herwaldt LA. Risk factors for groin wound infection after femoral artery catheterization: a case-control study. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol [Internet]. 2006 Jan [cited 2007 Jan 5];27(1):34-7. Available from:

Electronic Journal Articles without Page Numbers

Diederichs G, Engelken F, Marshall M, Peters K, Black DM, Issever AS, Barrett-Connor E, Orwoll E, Hamm B, Link TM. Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Research Group. Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH): Relation to vertebral factures and bone density. Osteoporos Int. [Internet]. 2010 Sep 4 [cited 2011 Jan 25]; [9 p.]. Available from

UpToDate is cited like an electronic book where the entry is treated as a chapter.

Marion DW. Diaphragmatic pacing. In: Basow, DS editor. UpToDate. Waltham, MA: UpToDate; 2011 [cited 2011 Jan 13].

See a variety of options for citing DynaMed on EBSCO Connect

DynaMed [Internet]. Ipswich (MA): EBSCO Publishing. 1995-. Record No. 112862, Acetaminophen poisoning; [updated 2010 Mar 09; cited 2010 Mar 23]; [about 24 screens]. Available from Registration and login required.

When referencing a Micromedex® product or database, you first need to figure out if you are citing the whole Micromedex resource, or a specific part of Micromedex. You should be able to tell by looking at the top of the entry.

As a whole:

Micromedex® 2.0 [Internet]. Truven Health Analytics, Greenwood Village, Colorado, USA. [updated 2015; cited 2015 Mar 09]; Available from Registration and login required.

For an individual section or document, see "Citing Micromedex;" it's located in the "Support and Training" section near the bottom center of the home page.

Electronic Book

Lawrence RA. A review of the medical benefits and contraindications to breastfeeding in the United States. Arlington (VA): National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health; 1997 Oct [cited 2000 Apr 24]. Available from:

Electronic Book Chapter

Monath TP. Dengue: the risk to developed and developing countries. In: Roizman, Bernard, editor. Infectious diseases in an age of change: the impact of human ecology and behavior on disease transmission. Washington: National Academy Press; 1995 [cited 2000 Apr 4]. Available from:

Web Page

National Institute of Aging. Alzheimer's Disease Fact Sheet. [cited 2008 May 23]. Available from: Accessed through MedlinePlus.

Articles in Journals

Standard Journal Article

List all of the first six authors; six or more, include first six followed by et al.

Vega KJ, Pina I, Krevsky B. Heart transplantation is associated with an increased risk for pancreatobiliary disease. Ann Intern Med. 1996 Jun 1;124(11):980-3.

Organization as Author

The Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. Clinical exercise stress testing. Safety and performance guidelines. Med J Aust. 1996;164:282-4.

No Author Given

Cancer in South Africa [editorial]. S Afr Med J. 1994;84:15.

Books and Other Monographs

Personal Author(s)

Ringsven MK, Bond D. Gerontology and leadership skills for nurses. 2nd ed. Albany (NY): Delmar Publishers; 1996.

Editor(s), Compiler(s) as Author

Norman IJ, Redfern SJ, editors. Mental health care for elderly people. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1996.

Organization as Author and Publisher

Institute of Medicine (US). Looking at the future of the Medicaid program. Washington: The Institute; 1992.

Chapter in a Book

Phillips SJ, Whisnant JP. Hypertension and stroke. In: Laragh JH, Brenner BM, editors. Hypertension: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management. 2nd ed. New York: Raven Press; 1195. p.465-78.

Conference Paper

Bengtsson S, Solheim BG. Enforcement of data protection, privacy and security in medical informatics. In: Lun KC, Degoulet P, Piemme TE, Rienhoff O, editors. MEDINFO 92. Proceedings of the 7th World Congress on Medical Informatics; 1992 Sep 6-10; Geneva, Switzerland. Amsterdam: North-Holland; 1992. p.1561-5.

Citation Management Software

PubMed's Cite Feature

On the abstract page for any citation in PubMed, look for the Cite button to create a citation in AMA, APA, MLA, or NLM style. 

Citation Generator