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Music Therapy: Citing Sources

University of Iowa subscribed resources for all music therapy students, faculty, and staff.


Citation: Describes the source so that others can locate it. Includes publication information, author name, and various other pieces of information, depending on type of source and style requirements.

Citation Style: Provides guidelines for consistent method to follow for documenting sources and for writing style. Some styles are much more flexible than others.

Works Cited: List of sources that were used to prepare the work.

Bibliography: Detailed list of all sources consulted during research even if the sources were not directly referred to in the content of the paper/presentation.

Annotated Bibliography: Annotations can be added to a bibliography to provide a summary of content, value, and quality of the source.

UI Writing Center

What to Cite?

Here's a short list of reasons you should cite:

--To avoid plagiarism

--To give credit where deserved

--To help your readers with their research

--To indicate that there is support for your argument or idea

What needs to be cited?

--Direct quotes, sentences, or phrases

--Paraphrases, which are summarized or re-phrased content

--Articles or studies that you refer to in your paper

--Historical or statistical facts

--Graphs, images, or charts

--Use of author's argument

What does not need to be cited?

--Proverbs and very well-known quotations

--Common knowledge. This may be difficult to determine. Think about facts that are common knowledge for a well-educated adult (you could even have a test subject). When in doubt, however, cite.

What about information I find on the web?

--You need to cite it unless it meets criteria above


What is plagiarism? A form of academic misconduct, either accidental or deliberate

What constitutes plagiarism?

--Using other's results or methods without permission and referencing

--Borrowing writing or words from any source, without proper referencing

More information on plagiarism can be found on the UI Libraries Guide on Copyright


Music Librarian

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Katie Buehner
Contact: Website
Subjects: Dance, Music, Theatre Arts