What is a bibliographic style? When professors assign a term paper, they usually expect you to provide a list of the sources you consulted in writing the paper. They may also expect you to cite your sources at the point in your paper where you refer to them, either as a footnote or an in-text citation. They will expect you to provide a bibliography or works cited list at the end of the paper.
In order to recognize what it is you've cited, whether it is a book, a magazine article, or a newspaper article, they expect your citations to be in a standard format. Sometimes the professor will tell you which style to use. Modern Language Association (MLA) and American Psychological Association (APA) are two popular styles used on campus, but there are others. Other times you are free to pick the bibliographic style, as long as you use it consistently.
If you are not already familiar with a particular bibliographic style, it can be frustrating to learn. Hopefully the guides and other tools below will help ease that frustration. Besides the items listed below, see also the Books tab at the top of this page, where we've listed some style guides, both print and e-books, available in the UI Libraries.
Citation Formats. A guide from UI Libraries with examples of the most common citation forms for APA, Chicago and MLA styles.
EasyBib. An automated citation generator on the web. Free if using MLA style.
EndNote Basic. A web-based citation management and bibliography tool. UI students can register for a free account.
Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL). A great site with tutorials, exercises and examples of APA and MLA style.
University of Iowa Writing Center. Schedule an appointment with a tutor for help with your writing project.
Information sources always need to be properly cited in your work within the paper and at the end. Find out which citation standard your professor wants you to use (Chicago, APA, MLA) and use online and print guides to help you format each citation.
What is an annotated bibliography?
Annotations vs. Abstracts
Creating an annotated bibliography calls for the application of a variety of intellectual skills: concise exposition, succinct analysis, and informed library research.
Sample annotated bibliography entry for a journal article
The following example uses the APA format for the journal citation:
Goldschneider, F. K., Waite, L. J., & Witsberger, C. (1986). Nonfamily living and the erosion of traditional family orientations among young adults. American Sociological Review, 51(4), 541-554.
The authors, researchers at the Rand Corporation and Brown University, use data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women and Young Men to test their hypothesis that nonfamily living by young adults alters their attitudes, values, plans, and expectations, moving them away from their belief in traditional sex roles. They find their hypothesis strongly supported in young females, while the effects were fewer in studies of young males. Increasing the time away from parents before marrying increased individualism, self-sufficiency, and changes in attitudes about families. In contrast, an earlier study by Williams cited below shows no significant gender differences in sex role attitudes as a result of nonfamily living.
From: McCain Library http://library.agnesscott.edu/help/guide/guid_annbib.htm