"Modern" European history conventionally dates from the political upheaval of the French Revolution, 1789, and the restructuring of European economies and societies in the Industrial Revolution that began to take shape in the eighteenth century, particularly in England.
There is an enormous range of resources, both primary source materials and scholarship based on them, and in print, electronic, and audiovisual formats.
Space and Time
A map of Europe in 1789 does not look the same as a current map. Historical atlases trace the changing contours of European space through time.
Oxford Atlas of World History (2002), Main Library Ref G1030 .O85 2002
The Times Atlas of European History (1998), Main Library Map Collection, Folio G1797.21 .S1 T5 1998
The University of Texas's Perry Castaneda Map Library has an excellent website that includes historical and thematic (land use, population, ethnic groups, industry, resources) maps of regions and countries.
Recent overviews of modern European history include Asa Briggs, Modern Europe 1789-1989 (1997), Felix Gilbert, The end of the European era: 1890 to the present (2002), and The Oxford illustrated history of modern Europe, edited by T. C. W. Blanning (1996), but most historians focus on a country or region and a thematic approach to the period or major developments or events such as the First or Second World War, the breakup of European colonial holdings, or social and political changes.
There are a number of handbooks, specialized encyclopedias, chronologies, and other reference sources, in print, for modern European history at both the continental and individual country levels. These are shelved in the Reference Department of the Main Library beginning at about Ref D208-D1058, for general modern European history, and with country-specific resources in the following sections: DA for Britain, DC for France, DD for Germany, and so on.
The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World is a recent guide to world history, including Europe, that is accessible online as well as in print.